In my previous post, I referred to phases of clinical trials for the injectable sustained release steroids to treat diabetic macular edema. There are four phases to clinical trials. This description is taken from the National Institutes of Health website:
Clinical trials are conducted in a series of steps, called phases – each phase is designed to answer a separate research question.
- Phase I: Researchers test a new drug or treatment in a small group of people for the first time to evaluate its safety, determine a safe dosage range, and identify side effects.
- Phase II: The drug or treatment is given to a larger group of people to see if it is effective and to further evaluate its safety.
- Phase III: The drug or treatment is given to large groups of people to confirm its effectiveness, monitor side effects, compare it to commonly used treatments, and collect information that will allow the drug or treatment to be used safely.
- Phase IV: Studies are done after the drug or treatment has been marketed to gather information on the drug’s effect in various populations and any side effects associated with long-term use.